Maths of ED25519
ED25519 signature uses a curve and involves performing operations on this curve. Let's dive deeper.
All operations in this signature scheme are defined under modulo p where
$p = 2^{255} - 19$
The curve equation is defined as follows:-
$ax^2 + y^2 = 1 + dx^2y^2$
where a = -1 and d = - 121665/121666
Base Point is defined as (Bx, By) where By = 4/5. Here the / operator represents the inverse modulo operation wrt p. Hence By = 4*mod_inverse(5,p) => By = 46316835694926478169428394003475163141307993866256225615783033603165251855960
Substitute By in the curve equation to calculate Bx = 15112221349535400772501151409588531511454012693041857206046113283949847762202

Say you have two points P and Q on the curve. If we draw a straight line through P and Q, it will intersect the curve at another point R as shown in the diagram. When this happens, we say that R is the sum of points P and Q. This is how pt addition is defined. Now let’s calculate R given P and Q. Given that P + Q = R . R is calculated as follows:-
$(x_1, y_1) + (x_2, y_2) = \left( \frac{x_1y_2 + x_2y_1}{1 + dx_1x_2y_1y_2}, \frac{y_1y_2 - ax_1x_2}{1-dx_1x_2y_1y_2} \right)$
This formula is derived by finding a point R that lies both on the curve and on the straight line through P and Q. To see detailed derivation, see https://martin.kleppmann.com/papers/curve25519.pdf (although it's for a different curve, but the concept is the same)
The above equation can be re-arranged to a polynomial form (R1CS). Points that satisfy this polynomial will always satisfy the property P + Q = R

## Defining Multiplication of a pt on the Curve

Given a point P on the curve, we define another point on the curve Q as the “scalar multiplication” of P and k such that Q =k*P where k is a constant under mod p. Scalar multiplication is defined as the repeated addition of pts:-
$k=2, Q = P+P \newline k=4, Q = 2P + 2P \newline k=8, Q = 4P + 4P \newline ... \newline k = 256, Q = 128P + 128P$
Hence, we can calculate Q in log(k) steps. Since max(k) < 2^255-19, we need to perform a max of log(2^255-19) ~ 255 steps to calculate a scalar multiple.

## Verifying an ED25519 signature

Let’s see some definitions:-
The ED25519 key-pair consists of:
• Private Key (integer under mod p) : privKey
• Public key (curve point): pubKey = privKey * B where B is the base pt as defined above

### Verification Algorithm

The ED22519 signature verification algorithm takes as input a text message msg + the signer's ED25519 public key pubKey + the ED25519 signature {R, s} and produces as output a boolean value (valid or invalid signature). Here s is a scalar, and R is a pt on the curve. ED25519 verification works as follows (with minor simplifications):
EdDSA_signature_verify(msg, pubKey, signature { R, s } ) --> valid / invalid
1. 1.
Calculate h = SHA512(R + pubKey + msg) mod q
2. 2.
Calculate P1 = s * B
3. 3.
Calculate P2 = R + h * pubKey
4. 4.
Return P1 == P2
Here q is the curve order. q = 2^252 + 27742317777372353535851937790883648493
In step one, you must be wondering how can we use pubKey as an input to SHA512 as pubKey is a curve point (not a scalar). pubkey in this step is represented as a "compressed" curve pt i.e only the y-coordinate. In step, 3, pubkey is used as a curve point.
EdDSA and Ed25519
Practical Cryptography for Developers